Maliki, a manifestation of the failure of U.S. policy in Iraq
Maliki, a manifestation of the failure of U.S. policy in Iraq
Posted 03/07/2014 10:48 AM
Exposed Iraqi Prime Minister Nuri al-Maliki to internal and external criticism, especially regarding security strategy and policy, U.S. officials confirmed that they are the main reason behind the deterioration of the situation in the country.
In November of 2010, and the United States faced a difficult dilemma in Iraq. Vnora al-Maliki, the man chosen by Washington four years ago to become prime minister of Iraq, after it was semi-submerged people, almost lost the election, but the maneuvers with the help of Iran to stay in power.
The clock is ticking to mark the imminent withdrawal of U.S. troops. And took American diplomats and Iraqi politicians are considering alternatives to lead Iraq. But the Iraqis were elected parliament stuck There was endorsed by the respective candidates boycotted. Fearing chaos settled Washington again on Maliki.
During the meeting Plain tension in the heavily fortified Green Zone in Baghdad, two Americans, two diplomats sat with al-Maliki and Kurdish regional President Massoud Barzani and with Iyad Allawi’s political bloc, which won the largest number of seats in the elections and whose support was necessary to resolve any agreement. Earlier that day, U.S. President Barack Obama Allawi and his promise to support any government that includes all the major factions in Iraq.
He said two people with direct knowledge of the discussions at the meeting, said that both Allawi and al-Maliki threatened to withdraw if Barzani to stop at some point in the way Allawi to prevent him from leaving the room. The two diplomats and urged them to Alomarkiyan reserving differences. Finally, the Iraqis agreed to a final agreement identified detailed in a written note.
The agreement, which put the final touches on that day is the last real agreement to share power in Iraq, met with failure in almost the same moment. And because of the intransigence of al-Maliki and his opponents did not apply the agreement at all and widened sectarian divisions in the country. And the rule of al-Maliki as a defender of the country’s Shiites, rather than a national leader for all Iraqis.
But former officials and even some Obama administration officials say the current efforts may also collapse. It was expected to sign the check on al-Maliki as prime minister for a third term after the coalition won in the elections held in April. But with the deterioration of the security situation to escalate pressure even from within his power base in order to leave the Shiite. Even if the left you will find Washington hardship likely to impact strongly on the situation. Now while rooting fighters organizing the Islamic State year grip on the west of Iraq and declare an Islamic caliphate and threatening a new civil war Washington is demanding again that constitute the leaders of Iraq inclusive government comprising minorities, Sunni and Kurdish.
Says more than a dozen current and former diplomats that relations between Washington and Baghdad were marred by repetition slips Obama administration and his predecessor, President George W. Bush. The diplomats say that Washington is unwilling or unable to influence Iraqi politicians, especially the man who helped him to power.
She explained Emma Sky, a British researcher in Middle Eastern affairs and adviser to Gen. Raymond Odierno, the U.S., that despite the loss of the 2010 elections, al-Maliki came out of them stronger than before. She said he “did not face any consequences when they retreat from its obligations,” the annexation of the year for the government.
In the same context, Ali al-Khudairi, who has worked a long time as an adviser to a number of U.S. ambassadors in Baghdad, said he resigned after being warned in a memo in October 2010 that the United States’ support for the rule of al-Maliki will lead to a dictatorship and renewed civil war and to the domination of Iran on Iraq. He said that U.S. and British officials who agreed with him in opinion left by the fall of Baghdad in 2010, but his note reached senior officials in the White House and refused his words.
Said James Jeffrey, the U.S. ambassador in Baghdad from 2010 until 2012, said that U.S. efforts to redraw Iraq were not realistic at all. He added that the Bush administration did not explain to the public the size of the effort required, although the Obama administration squandered the limited impact that existed.
For his part, sees Robert Ford, who served Mrtinkdblomase prominent American in Baghdad, that Washington were not often the patient on Iraqi politicians “in order to complete their negotiations long and tedious.” But said that it required at the same time “to give them time to reach a compromise available her viable. ”
Personal very ambitious
Nouri al-Maliki spent years in exile, a member of the Shiite group called the invitation a secret. It was Washington’s role in the rise of a politician, who is 64 years old. In 2006, when Sunni insurgents have stepped up their activity found Ibrahim al-Jaafari, the Iraqi prime minister at the time – a Shiite – that he does not enjoy the confidence of leaders, Shiites, Kurds and Sunnis, as well as Washington.
Yet the Bush Administration is keen to convince the public of the importance of the war and the future of Iraq resorted to al-Maliki as a consensus candidate. She reached the then Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice’s visit to Iraq in unannounced and met with al-Maliki and other Iraqi leaders.
At the headquarters of the U.S. Ambassador Khalilzad, al-Maliki told U.S. officials that his first goal would ease distrust between religious groups in Iraq. Khalilzad told reporters recently, “was regarded as an Arab nationalist .. Public was clean with the possibility to be a strong leader.” But Ford, former diplomat said that the Americans mistreated assess al-Maliki.
Said Ken Pollack, a former official in the White House and the CIA and an expert on Iraqi affairs, who met with al-Maliki in March and briefed U.S. officials later on the results of his visit to the Iraqi prime minister seemed preoccupied completely the idea of marginalizing political opponents after the elections in April
And established Maliki Kiedatllamilit system avoids conventional military that Washington insisted that includes Sunnis and Kurds. During his second term, al-Maliki filled the posts of Minister of Defense and Interior and appointed loyal to him in high military positions as the United States seeks to strengthen the Iraqi army.
Maliki’s response to it that he was not aware of the detainees told him that the human rights inspectors. He blamed the detentions and violations of the Baathists have infiltrated the ranks of its security forces. Said Christopher Hill, Washington’s ambassador to Iraq in 2009 and 2010, the United States has already tried to put pressure on al-Maliki to end the reign of sectarian but failed., And by 2009 the foundations of al-Maliki and a special unit of the Army is working directly under the command of his military office and directed her charges of committing abuses. In 2010, unfolded one of the most striking issues when inspectors discovered in the field of human rights the arrest of at least 400 Sunni in Mosul within the military campaigns, detention without charge and the frequency of allegations of torture at the military facility at Baghdad International Airport.
And remember how Maliki has resisted paying for fighters Sunni tribes that had supported important to end the worst sectarian killings since 2003. Hill said, “I was forced to go to him and sometimes every week to make sure only that things are going really well .. It was not the body language show faith project the whole. ”
The view of many Americans and British officials directly involved in the events that March 2010 is the month in which it began to unravel Iraq held again and the tension in relations between Washington and al-Maliki.
By that time, the sectarian war has subsided and passed the parliamentary elections held in that month in a peaceful and relatively honest. Solving a coalition of state law, which belongs to him al-Maliki in second place by a narrow margin for a coalition dominated by Sunnis and led by Allawi, a secular Shiite who served as prime minister in the interim. The officials said al-Maliki turned to the Constitutional Court for a ruling and not allow him to Allawi to form a government. It was Allawi’s coalition has won 91 seats while Maliki’s coalition won 89 seats. It seemed that the rule violates the Iraqi constitution, which helped U.S. experts on the drafting.
Ali al-Khudairi, U.S. ambassadors adviser, said Iran and the commander of the Qods Force in Tehran secret Gen. Qassem Soleimani played a pivotal role in gaining the support of other Shiite leaders for the owners. And pressed Iran to group a large Shiite loyal to cleric Moqtada al-Sadr – who fell out with al-Maliki – to support it. Said Jeffrey, who served as Hill in August 2010 that with the length of the process of choosing a new prime minister used American diplomats all their might influence to broker an agreement even when they are looking for alternative to the owners. He added, “There was fierce opposition to it, especially in the U.S. Army, so you’re ready, because we seek to postpone this thing and see if we find alternatives .. never did find an alternative.” It took nearly ten months to the end of December 2010 for the completion of the formation of the government. Poetry and American officials are concerned that the political vacuum will wreak havoc with the withdrawal of U.S. troops.
On December 15, 2011 and saw the then U.S. Secretary of Defense Leon Panetta soldiers at the airport in Baghdad’s heavily fortified Ankson they are aware of U.S. troops in Iraq marked the end of Washington’s project in Iraq. Panetta said in a modest ceremony missed the biggest politicians of Iraq who described the withdrawal as a victory for Iraqi sovereignty “challenges still exist and the United States would be willing to stand by the Iraqi people.
The extent to which the Obama administration stood by Iraq after 2011 to prevent the worsening issue of sectarian divisions are controversial.
While Panetta was speaking government forces had surrounded the house of Tareq al-Hashemi, Iraqi Vice President and the largest Sunni official in Iraq, which accused al-Maliki and other officials that was linked to the killings and the bombing, a charge repeatedly denied. Four days later, the Interior Ministry issued an arrest warrant for al-Hashemi, the Iraqi who fled from Baghdad to the Kurdistan region of Iraq and sentenced to death in absentia. Officials said the U.S. reaction was very weak.
U.S. officials have expressed disquiet about the biggest step taken by al-Maliki after a year against a top Sunni official, is another Finance Minister Rafie al-Issawi, who is popular in order to allegations that his links gunmen.
In December 2012 the government forces have detained a number of al-Issawi personal guard, sparking protests in Anbar province, the birthplace of al-Issawi, who resigned in March 2013., But this issue has not been highlighted in Washington, where he was the focus of the White House focused on the worsening conflict in Syria.
The U.S. Embassy believes in al-Issawi – a former surgeon – a Sunni moderate, can be dealt with. Sky said that U.S. intelligence officials ordered investigated the charges against him and concluded that it is void. A U.S. official said that American diplomats sought in the case of al-Issawi and others to prevent al-Maliki and other politicians of fueling sectarian tensions.
Today, however, Obama’s quest to push the political leadership in Iraq to repel the organization of the Islamic state – it must overcome the doubts of Iraqis who believe that the United States continues to support al-Maliki even while supportive of the Sunnis and Kurds. The Kurdish leader Barzani, who was in favor of the owners in 2010, also begin to feel aggrieved. They now accuse al-Maliki of failing to honor the terms of the agreement.
While facing a potential disintegration of Iraq, said former U.S. Ambassador Jeffrey basic dilemma that arose during the American occupation and is that democracy has enabled the majority Shiite fears former Sunni rulers. He said, “We have been striving for democracy and this is what we were doing there. And democracy led to this result. ”